Le personnage principal, celui autour duquel tourne l’intrigue, est Augustus Melmotte, un financier sans scrupule, l’incarnation même du capitaliste véreux. 15 March – The anarchist Amédée Pauwels explodes a bomb in the church of, 22 July – The first automobile race, organized by. [37], Most of the notable monuments of the Belle Époque were constructed for use at the Universal Expositions, for example the Eiffel Tower, the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais, and the Pont Alexandre III. Lorsque Trollope rentre d’un long voyage en Australie et Nouvelle-Zélande fin 1872, et découvre un Londres transformé et un pays désormais dominé par l’argent. The community faced a strong current of antisemitism, exemplified by the Dreyfus Affair. In 1870, there were 56,573 gaslights used exclusively to illuminate the streets of the city. Pendant ce temps, pour tenir Paul à l'écart des réunions du Conseil, Melmotte tente d'envoyer Paul au Mexique pour un voyage d'inspection de la ligne de chemin de fer, mais Paul refuse d'obtempérer. His most famous works include Clair de Lune for piano (written ca. Line 2, between Porte Dauphine and Nation, opened in April 1903, and the modern Line 6 was finished at the end of 1905. On 14 April 1871, just before the end of the Commune, the National Assembly, meeting in Versailles, passed a new law giving Paris a special status different from other French cities and subordinate to the national government. In 1898, Louis Renault and his brother Marcel built their first automobile and founded a new company to produce them. ( Déconnexion /  The Belle Époque was spared the violent uprisings that brought down two French regimes in the 19th century, but it had its share of political and social conflicts and occasional violence. Découvrez vos propres épingles sur Pinterest et enregistrez-les. 0000001817 00000 n Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was a pioneer in vaccination, microbacterial fermentation and pasteurization. For those with more modest budgets, there was the Bouillon, a type of restaurant begun by a butcher named Duval in 1867. The Belle Époque was a beautiful era, but as Mark Twain described the Gilded Age, it was a thin veneer hiding systemic problems—discontent among the working classes, political tensions between nation states, militarism, imperialism, and to top it all, an unyielding arms race that by 1914 was a bubble about to burst. In September 1907, the newspaper Le Gaulois described an Apache as "the man who lives on the margin of society, ready to do anything, except to take a regular job, the miserable who breaks in a doorway, or stabs a passer-by for nothing, just for pleasure. Ivre et sans le sou, Felix retourne chez sa mère, sachant que tout est perdu. Elle est amoureuse du jeune Paul Montague, lui aussi membre du conseil d’administration de Melmotte. The Grand Hôtel on the Boulevard des Capucines opened in 1862. [46] The Eiffel Tower remained the world's tallest structure until 1930. The Exposition coincided with the 1900 Paris Olympics, the first Olympic games held outside of Greece. The city's bankers and businessmen quickly raised the money, and the reconstruction was soon underway. Since it was an unauthorized celebration, it led to confrontations between police and demonstrators. contient également un secret, celui d’Augustus Melmotte, et donc une intrigue. In 1907, Renault began building three thousand specially-built taxis; some were exported to London and others to New York City. Still others relocated to Picpus and Charonne in the southeast, or near Grenelle and Javel in the southwest. He became part of the Parisian literary circle of the symbolist poet Mallarme. [49] The exposition welcomed 23 million visitors. Swiss and Germans were predominant in businesses making watches and clocks and also accounted for a large proportion of the domestic servants. S’il lui arrivait de finir l’un de ses pavés avant la fin des deux heures et demie, il en recommençait un autre. Several of the streets of Paris were renamed for republican and socialist heroes, including Auguste Comte (1885), François-Vincent Raspail (1887), Armand Barbès (1882), and Louis Blanc (1885). Chronique de l’avidité chez les Victoriens (The Way We Live Now) est un roman satirique britannique d'Anthony Trollope, publié en 1875, après une pré-publication en revue sous forme de feuilleton. Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and Marie Curie (1867-1934) jointly carried on Becquerel's work, discovering radium and polonium (1898). A 29-meter tall monument with a statue of another republican hero, Leon Gambetta, surmounted by a pylon crowned by an eagle, was placed in the Cour Napoléon of the Louvre in 1888. Mais la principale caractéristique de celles et ceux qui entourent Mr Melmotte est évidemment la naïveté, pour mieux les tromper. Between 1872 and 1895, 139 large enterprises closed their doors in Paris, particularly textile and furniture factories, metallurgy concerns, and printing houses, four industries had been the major employers in the city for sixty years. The Universal Exposition of 1889 took place from 6 May until 31 October 1889 and celebrated the centenary of the beginning of the French Revolution; one of the structures on the grounds was a replica of the Bastille. 0000003273 00000 n Auguste Dalligny, 'Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts - l'Exposition du Champ de Mars', Direction Régionale de Police Judiciaire de Paris, http://www.lettresvolees.fr/queneau/documents/Dossier_Tour_Eiffel.pdf, "Anciens sénateurs IIIème République : HUGO Victor", "Mémoires de la Société de l'histoire de Paris et de l'Île-de-France", "Albert Gleizes, 1881-1953 : a retrospective exhibition", "Four Centuries of Music in Paris: A Brief Outline", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paris_in_the_Belle_Époque&oldid=975425634, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 13 January – opening of the École Libre des Sciences Politiques, or, 24 July – Law passed supporting the construction of the. 1 July – The opening of the first electric train line in Europe between. 0000001044 00000 n https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quelle_époque_!&oldid=163474476, Portail:Littérature britannique/Articles liés, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. The first Paris-Bordeaux race took place on 10–12 June 1895, and the first race from Paris to Monte-Carlo in 1911. The grotto and much of the park are still preserved as they were. Entre-temps, Felix Carbury est déchiré entre sa liaison avec Ruby Ruggles et l'enjeu financier que représentent ses relations avec Marie Melmotte. Augustus Melmotte est un financier au passé obscur : le bruit court qu'il a des origines juives, et il est plus tard révélé qu'il possédait une banque en faillite à Munich. [18], In addition to the gardiens de la paix publique, Paris was guarded by the Garde républicaine under the military command of the Gendarmerie Nationale. The number was reduced in 1873 to 4,000 men in a single regiment, called the Légion de la Garde républicaine (Legion of the Republican Guard), with its headquarters on the Quai de Bourbon and troops quartered in several barracks around the city. On 14 July 1880, the Place du Trône was renamed the Place de la Nation, and a group of statues by Jules Dalou, called Triumph of the Republic, was placed in the center. These establishment served simple and inexpensive food and were popular with students and visitors. ( Déconnexion /  [28], At the beginning of the Belle Époque, the industry of haute couture (high fashion) was dominated by the House of Worth. Augustus Melmotte est un financier véreux. 0000002702 00000 n Par ailleurs, aux réunions du Conseil du Chemin de fer du Mexique, présidées et contrôlées par Melmotte, un certain Paul Montague vient à soulever des questions embarrassantes. Dans le Londres des années 1870, débarque un personnage mystérieux et sulfureux affublé d'une … They usually lived in Belleville and Charonne. They survived and flourished because of the support of Paris art dealers, such as Ambroise Vollard and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, and wealthy patrons, including Gertrude Stein. The Municipal Council of Paris, in contrast, wanted an independent underground metro only in the twenty arrondissements of the city that would support the tramways and omnibuses on the streets. The Élysée Palace was chosen as the new residence in 1873. The total number of enterprises in Paris dropped from 76,000 in 1872 to 60,000 in 1896, while in the suburbs their number grew from 11,000 to 13,000. Incomes varied greatly according to the neighborhood: in the 8th arrondissement, there were eight poor persons for ten upper or middle class residents; in the 13th, 19th and 20th arrondissements, there were seven or eight poor for every well-off resident. [58], The most famous French composer of the late Belle Époque in Paris was Claude Debussy (1862-1918). Monarchist politicians began to promote Boulanger as a potential new leader who could dissolve the parliament, become president, recover the lost provinces and restore the French monarchy. But then it was purchased by the CGO, the main omnibus line, and remained simply a curiosity. His chief rival in the early French film industry, Léon Gaumont, opened his first studio at about the same time at the Rue des Alouettes in the 19th arrondissement, near the Buttes-Chaumont.[27]. Voir tous les articles par virginiedraelants, Le Strandhotel Duinoord, tout au nord de Walcheren, Comme un poisson dans l’eau, à l’Oesterbeurs de Yerseke. On 12 February 1894, an anarchist named Émile Henry set off a bomb at the café of the Hôtel Terminus next to the Gare Saint-Lazare that killed one person and wounded seventy-nine. Ils ne reviendront jamais en Angleterre. J’ai vraiment adoré ce livre parce qu’il nous permet de prendre conscience de la stupidité de certaines personnes qui sont obsédées par l’apparence et l’argent plus que par l’intelligence et le bon sens, le tout dans la bonne humeur. The most innovative buildings of the period were the Gallery of Machines at the 1889 exposition and the new railroad stations and department stores: their classical exteriors concealed very modern interiors with large open spaces and large glass skylights made possible by the new engineering techniques of the period. The last horse-drawn tramways were replaced with electric trams in 1914. 0000005161 00000 n He died at the asylum of Saint-Esprit in Passy in 1893. 1 October – First collection of trash by motorized trucks instead of handcarts. 25 March – The first traffic roundabout created in Paris at the, 13 December – Creation of first one-way streets in Paris on the Rue de Mogador and. 0000005906 00000 n Les personnages, comme le lecteur, ne sont pas au bout de leurs surprises ! 0000000596 00000 n Ruby, après avoir été battue par son grand-père pour avoir refusé d'épouser John Crumb, un meunier possédant des biens plus que respectables, s'enfuit à Londres et trouve refuge dans la pension de sa tante, Mrs Pipkin, où réside justement Winifred Hurtle. It is associated particularly with the metro station entrances designed by Hector Guimard and a handful of buildings, including Guimard's Castel Beranger (1889) at 14 Rue La Fontaine and the Hôtel Mezzara (1910) in the 16th arrondissement. At the time, Paris was not actually the capital of France. In 1878, two-thirds of Parisians paid less than 300 francs a year for their lodging, a very small amount at the time. Other than the parks of the expositions, no other large Paris parks were created in the Belle Époque, but several squares of about one hectare each were created. The remains of the writer were placed in the Panthéon, formerly the Church of Saint-Geneviève, which had been turned into a mausoleum for great Frenchmen during the French Revolution, then turned back into a church in April 1816, during the Bourbon Restoration. They produced the first French automobiles, aircraft, and motion pictures. Beside the Eiffel Tower, it featured the world's largest ferris wheel, the "Grande Roue de Paris", one hundred metres high, that could carry sixteen hundred passengers in forty cars. Cycling also became an important professional sport, with the opening in 1903 of the first cycling stadium, the Vélodrome d'hiver, on the site of the demolished Palace of Machinery from the 1900 Exposition on the Champ de Mars. Certain nationalities were concentrated in specific professions: Italians were concentrated in the businesses of making ceramics, shoes, sugar and conserves, whereas Germans were concentrated in leather-working, brewing, baking and charcuterie. It took place on both sides of the Seine, in the Champ de Mars and the heights of Trocadéro, where the first Palais du Trocadéro was built. The coaches of the CGO carried twenty-four to twenty-six passengers and ran on thirty-one different lines. Designed by Auguste Perret, it was also built of reinforced concrete and decorated by some of the leading artists of the era: bas-reliefs on the façade by Antoine Bourdelle, a dome by Maurice Denis, and paintings in the interior by Édouard Vuillard. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) Maurice Utrillo lived at the same address from 1906 to 1914, Suzanne Valadon lived and had her studio there, and Raoul Dufy shared an atelier there from 1901 to 1911. It was open to any painter who could pay a fee of sixty francs. Alors qu'il tombe amoureux de la jeune Hetta Carbury, ce qui rend furieuse Mathilde, sa mère, une ancienne fiancée américaine, Winifred Hurtle, l'a suivi en Europe. (The Way We Live Now) est un roman satirique britannique d'Anthony Trollope, publié en 1875, après une pré-publication en revue sous forme de feuilleton. He was also commissioned to create a Monument to Balzac (now on the Boulevard Raspail), which caused a scandal and made him a celebrity. Several moved to less-expensive areas at the edges of the city, around Montparnasse and La Salpêtriére, while others went to the 18th arrondissement, La Villette and the Canal Saint-Denis to be closer to the river ports and the new railroad freight yards. His most famous works are the Gymnopédies (1888). Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July, and following the terms of their alliances, Germany joined Austria-Hungary, while Russia, Britain and France went to war against Austria-Hungary and Germany. Drawn by the reputation of Paris as the world capital of art, Pablo Picasso came from Barcelona in 1900 to share an apartment with the poet Max Ernst and began by painting the cabarets and prostitutes of the neighborhood. Quelle époque ! [50], Paris was already famous for its restaurants in the first half of the 19th century, particularly the Café Riche, the Maison Dorée and the Café Anglais on the Grands Boulevards, where the wealthy personalities of Balzac's novels would dine. It was the second-highest flood recorded in the history of Paris (the highest was in 1658), and was the third major flood of the Belle Époque (the others were in 1872 and 1876).